Wave Goodbye to the Pitfalls of Presenteeism

The US Department of Labor says that the average American takes eight days off every year, meaning workers gift thousands of dollars of unused vacation time to their employers annually. But why?

Part of the issue is presenteeism – which plagues corporate America and, at the last calculation, costs the country $150 billion a year. This estimate attributed lost productivity due to poor health conditions of employees who still came to work – but did not take into account other effects – such as how presenteeism can also affect company culture, worker retention, and talent attraction.

The basic definition of presenteeism is when an employee spends more time at work than is required – including if they are unwell. A report from NPR, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health found over half of Americans go to work when they are sick.

Deadlines are feared, having too many actions to return to, and expectations that employees must put work before their own health. For many workers, presenteeism is engrained in company culture. And it’s a problem many industries are grappling with as they increase flexible working policies that improve work life balances.

Companies must take the necessary actions to combat this issue, with three steps to consider below:

Step one: Addressing the root causes

Organizations should first take steps to address the root causes of poor physical and mental health within their workforce by offering comprehensive benefits packages. To have the greatest impact, these should include wellbeing support through a holistic benefits package such as wellness initiatives/allowances, access to mental health resources, massage or acupuncture sessions, and nutritionist sessions that support employees’ physical and mental health.

Additionally, technology is essential for HR and benefits teams to counter presenteeism. As well as offering sophisticated analysis that enables HR to track the popularity (and, therefore, success) of any company initiatives over a period of time, benefits tech and wellness pots can make a more immediate and tangible impact by allowing employees to self-administer benefits to impact their day-to-day health and happiness. This opens up an endless list of options, for example this could include access to yoga classes, therapy sessions, or financial wellness training. This digital approach to benefits management not only also means employees can access their benefits whenever and wherever they want, but provides data back to employers on what benefits are being used (and therefore valued.)

Step two: Analyze company culture

Presenteeism is often a cultural issue entrenched in an organization by the behavior of the leadership team or company values that haven’t yet evolved. While most within a company will recognize change as necessary, direction and leadership must first come from management.

If workers see management and leadership teams taking time off when they’re sick or are in need of a rest, they’ll be far more likely to do the same. It sends a clear message that when somebody is ill, they too should take the time to recover and when work is done, it’s time to go home.

HR can also facilitate open discussions about the importance of wellbeing to help shift company culture by using listening exercises that demonstrate to the workforce the company cares. Furthermore, organizations can take polls and surveys to help address any gaps in company benefits packages that could enhance their employees’ wellbeing – there is no shortage of ways employers can try to make improvements in this area.

Step three: Tech is key

Technology has effectively allowed more employees to work from home or other remote locations. Remote work brings many benefits such as reduced stress by saving money and time on commuting. But with this comes a need for balance.

Employers must be clear to workers that when they are sick, they should not be sending emails or seen online. When they are ready and well enough to return to work, they will be recovered, rejuvenated, and more productive.

We have a lot of work to do to address and eliminate presenteeism. Companies need to start by looking at their culture and management structures to better understand how to lead by example. People should be made to feel comfortable to take time off when they’re physically or mentally unwell without fearing piles of work or judgement from their manager – or their colleagues. This means actually taking time off when rest is needed so they can recuperate, and not working remotely which should be actively discouraged by managers during sick leave.

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The Majority of Americans Believe Their Workspace Negatively Impacts Their Well-being. Here’s How To Fix It.

From the worsening obesity epidemic to stress levels continuing to rise, American employees are struggling with their wellbeing. New research shows that a shocking 64% of American workers believe that their employer and workplace are having a negative or very negative impact on their wellbeing. But what’s behind this alarming statistic? And what can businesses do about it?

When it comes to employee wellness and the employee experience, we found that forward-thinking organizations are recognizing their employees’ needs and addressing them through dynamic benefits programs that support them in and outside of the workplace. Research shows that they’re reaping rewards for this. Bersin by Deloitte finds that organizations focused on creating a flexible and empowering workplace experience are five times more effective at improving employee engagement and retention than their peers. Meanwhile, businesses that do not tailor the employee experience to support their workers will find themselves left behind. Companies that do want to gain a competitive advantage should focus on establishing a wellness program, looking for ways to go beyond traditional benefits, and digitizing the HR process.

Establish a wellness program

Wellbeing initiatives can take many forms, but flexible wellness pots, which enable employees to spend a wellbeing allowance in a way that suits them, are gaining in popularity. In a world where employees increasingly wish to be recognized as individuals, this approach enables organizations to cater for their personal preferences, be they for a diet program or meditation class. Surveying employees can also help to determine which wellness benefits they would value most, gym memberships for example, or counseling services to support them in times of need.

Nick Lawry, Reward Manager at Virgin Management, believes that benefits have never been more vital in ensuring the wellbeing and peace of mind of employees, notably as part of offering a fantastic employee experience. From offering financial education through to super flexible working and unlimited annual leave, they try to give people the benefits and the flexibility that allow them to take control and make the choices that are best for them.

Go beyond traditional

Promoting holistic employee wellness demands going beyond just health and fitness benefits. Financial concerns can have a significant negative impact on the mental health of employees – one Harris poll found that 82% of employees are under financial stress. Our research also indicates that they would appreciate having personal goals in this area of their lives supported by their employers. Outside of salary and retirement plans, employees would like employers to support broader financial needs, such as saving to buy a home or debt management. When we consider that over half of US employees aspire to buy a home, but less than one in twenty benefits programs cater for this life goal, the opportunity for employers to seize the initiative and support this need is clear.

Having flexible benefits that are customized to employee life goals sets companies apart and transforms them into great places to work. Pharmaceutical innovators Mundipharma recognized this, and in addition to its core benefits, launched a new range aligned to its employees’ lifestyles and designed to give them more choice. This additional selection ‘pot’ of benefits, called “Flex”, achieved staggering results. Since the rollout of Flex, 96% of employees have ‘flexed’ their benefits and employee turnover has reduced by 45% within 18 months. Meanwhile, the time to fill job openings has reduced from 50-days on average to just 28. Perhaps most importantly, engagement also improved and 90% of those who flexed their benefits regularly said they’d still “be working here in a year’s time.”

Digitize the benefits process

Employees are looking for an employer who will make a positive impact on their day-to-day lives. For companies to accomplish this, HR departments need to spend more time on transformational activities that focus on culture, engagement and employer brand. HR can free up time for this by automating and digitizing more processes. This is one of the reasons adoption of global and regional shared service centers as well as global human capital management (HCM) and global benefits technology are all on the rise. Working with top companies around the globe, I’ve seen firsthand what having a more digitized, globally-driven strategy that’s better aligned with people and business strategy can do. Achieve this, and organizations won’t just reduce admin and improve compliance – they’ll see an increase in benefits engagement, which will domino into workplace engagement, and have a positive impact on how employees feel about their organizations.

Companies with an established global benefits strategy and technology that supports the implementation of this are three times more likely to see a reduction in administration errors and twice as likely to see a reduction in benefits overcharges. The implementation of those benefits further help the company’s bottom line by creating a positive, supportive working environment that reduces the current disconnect between employers and employees around the workplace experience, attracting and retaining staff for the long haul.

Ultimately, the best companies are creating amazing global strategies and have the technology in place to deliver these so that employees really feel the benefits. They’re happier and healthier and they enjoy being at work. This is what will keep them an engaged and productive member of your organization.

HR Outsourcing May Steady the Path to Success

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For years, HR outsourcing (HRO) has begrudgingly worn a label of dedication to small businesses. Yes, there are incredible merits for small businesses within this stereotype, however the advantages of an outsourced Human Resources department show benefits for organizations of all sizes.

Recent statistics have pulled back the curtains to reveal increased reliance on HROs for business-related tasks. A global Deloitte study found that more than 35 percent of respondents already measure the value of their HRO, with another 32% planning increases in Human Resources over the next year.

And while some attribute Human Resource outsourcing to small business ventures, the industry is exploding. Outsourcing firms are expected to generate $53.9 billion in business by 2020.

The figures are clear, but for business owners thinking of making the shift, the advantages must offer total compliance satisfaction in order for the investment to pay dividends. If leaders can trust an outsourcing firm to manage daily tasks, long-term strategic goals can take center stage to focus on the business’s long term growth and needs.

So why are more organizations outsourcing the functions of HR, and is it truly achieving the goals it sets to satisfy?

HROs Reduce Company Risk

Over the past decade, workplace case complexity has increased almost across the board. Especially for startups and small businesses, the resources exhausted throughout workplace investigations quickly become overwhelming. HR professionals, likewise, are not experts in all fields of law and sometimes untrained to handle complex caseloads.

A HRO mitigates these risks by remaining up-to-date on all local, state, and federal regulations the organization must comply with. Likewise, they have the benefit of conducting unbiased, thorough, and timely investigations that reach clear conclusions and move the organization beyond the situation.

Although HR is not directly a profit center for businesses, it does minimize risk, create better efficiencies, and save money from being lost or spent unnecessarily. So even though HR might not be bringing in revenue, it can directly help with keeping more profit for the company.

Because minor oversights can cause costly delay, or worse, litigation, it is important for organizations to trust their workplace investigations with HR professionals who are experts in the field of risk mitigation and fair procedures.

HROs Meet Compliance Standards

A must for organizations of all sizes, compliance standards have the nasty habit of constant updates and overhauls, delays and reversals. It is imperative that businesses keep up-to-date with all standards expected within their industry and state–which can become overwhelming for an HR team already overloaded with important tasks.

But compliance means more than regulatory satisfaction. HR compliance is an umbrella term that may include things like cultural obligations, the ACA, licenses, collective bargaining, separation, and a slew of other considerations.

And organizations aren’t just worried about keeping up, they’re also tasked with recognizing any variances between their own policies and applicable laws.

Typically, the HRO chosen immediately focuses on compliance standards and potential issues, reducing risk and assuring satisfaction. Their goal is to provide a strategy that replaces any potentially damaging policies and reviews your policy regularly in line with updates to law.

Without this burden, organizations are freed from surrendering in-house time and resources to keeping up with regularly changing laws and reviewing their policies.

HROs Prove Financially Beneficial

Especially for smaller businesses (it’s a hard-to-shake label), a HRO is simply more cost-effective than hiring a full-time, in-house HR professional.

For companies of all sizes, there are smaller benefits that HR outsourcing brings with it. More office space without an HR team allows the organization to grow in workforce without concern for office overpopulation. In fact, a recent Deloitte study found that of those surveyed, a healthy 47 percent chose to outsource based on its solution to capacity issues.

Efficiency and productivity are influenced by office design, and outsourcing HR satisfies the conditions for a more efficient, productive workspace.

HROs Provide More Affordable Group Rates

Healthcare affordability is a top concern for employees. Not only that, but those who receive affordable health care coverage through their employer are more likely to find satisfaction in the job. Prudential Financial Inc found that 46% of employers were either outsourcing or looking to outsource the requirements of the ACA.

Because HROs work with many companies, they can take advantage of reduced bulk pricing. For small and large businesses, this provides quality coverage for employees at lower costs.

The advantages of an HRO for group rates extends beyond the coverage employees receive. Because of the ever-changing ACA requirements, with sweeping changes on the way, administrative costs are cut sifting through constant updates.

For organizations with an HR team, outsourcing health care oversight to an HRO minimizes the burden on HR while preventing easily-made mistakes.

HROs Strengthen Recruiting Methods

As companies turn to more strategic, aggressive recruiting methods, outsourcing this HR function has become more widely popular. Organizations are “becoming increasingly inventive to attract and retain valuable candidates”, Byrne Mulrooney told SHRM earlier in 2016.

Because many HR teams are unequipped to attract top talent in a way larger organizations can, the task is being outsourced to companies specializing in the field, like Mulrooney’s. When combined with bolstered benefits, appeal to organizations outsourcing these functions is elevated on a budget.

Choosing one or more HR function to outsource is smart organizational planning. Freeing up resources and time to focus on the growth of the company allows leaders to plan for long-term growth and goals. As the industry continues to grow, it will undoubtedly change the roles of internal HR teams, aligning them with more strategic functions over day-to-day tasks.


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Salary Transparency is Coming Like a Freight Train… Get On Board or Get Run Over

Keep Salary Expectations on Track Through Transparenecy

By revealing company salary ranges and fostering a salary transparent society, companies immediately begin accruing both short-term and long-term benefits. Integral to the process is an introspective analysis that creates a greater understanding of what the company values and what they don’t. Companies with clearly defined parameters receive more targeted interest from candidates who have identified the company as being able to fulfill their needs. Interviewing and on-boarding processes are elevated by data-driven discussions. On the job, fewer doubts about compensation frees up employees’ mental energies to focus on the tasks at hand. Employees are also better able to visualize the long-term benefits of remaining with the company. A company opening its books and revealing specific salaries and salary ranges in terms of location and experience level may seem as if it is shooting itself in the foot in the short run, but, given the long view, salary transparency enhances productivity, retention, and quality.

Chris Bolte
Chris Bolte, CEO & Co-Founder at Paysa

While nobody expects companies to universally release every one of their employees’ compensation-related data for the general public to scrutinize, several companies are already doing so. Buffer, creator of a social media management tool, releases up to date salaries for each employee. Companies and individuals wary of an invasion of privacy will appreciate the middle ground Buffer took a stand on with a salary calculator it developed that incorporates factors such as a candidate’s role, experience level, desired location, and preference for higher or lower risk compensation package (equity vs. salary). There are a number of available options when it comes to salary transparency methodology.

Making Progress Toward Transparency

Regardless of the path a company chooses, the track leading toward long-term success involves several stops along the way that facilitate salary transparency and better-informed candidates. In any company, there will always be individuals determined to fight sharing salary-related data. Pushback from guarded employees and well-meaning human resources personnel may result in a temporary thinning of the ranks. The potentially painful transition to providing salary transparency is streamlined with thorough preparation involving organizational introspection and deep market research. First, companies must delve deep into their own needs to understand what skills, traits, and experiences are important to the company. Dissect these components to ascertain why they hold value. It should be apparent what each skill, trait, or experience adds to the company, leading to its continued success.

Before leveraging the benefits of salary transparency, companies must clearly define their compensation processes. Companies must determine the average salary for each position and clarify how those are established. Companies should be able to explain why an employee’s compensation falls at a certain spot within a range. What an employee needs to accomplish in order to move up within a pay range must be clear and transparent. Candidates approaching a company with well-defined values and needs should carefully assemble a portfolio that highlights their skillsets, character traits, and experiences as related to the value they will contribute to the company.

Salary transparency should inform the interview process as well. Those company needs should be juxtaposed against the backdrop of the broader market’s needs. Market research and analysis should lead to establishing updated benchmarks pertaining to skills and experience. Because market values change rapidly, especially in the tech industry, relying on dated benchmarking techniques with a narrow perspective cripples the hiring process and sets companies up for failure from the outset.

Salary Transparency Enhances Long-Term Productivity

The effort required, the difficulties to overcome, and pushback from both outside and within shouldn’t deter a company from achieving salary transparency. In addition to ameliorating conditions for employees, companies benefit in numerous ways from both individually and collectively enacting initiatives that promote salary transparency. Beyond simply staying relevant to the needs of the next generation of job seekers, companies that promote salary transparency have a better understanding of their own values in terms of desired skills, which makes hiring easier. Once an employee is on-boarded, conversations about their value to the company, as well as how to enhance it, are much more data-driven. Providing access to data on salaries, not only within the company, but across a market segment, also dispels any doubts regarding compensation. Rather than focusing on whether or not they are getting paid adequately, employees focus on doing their job and growing their career. This improves both productivity, as employees know what the company values and how they can impact that, as well as retention rates, as employees are more productive and rewarded, while less likely to leave looking for a better deal.

While salary transparency may result in companies losing control over salary negotiations and other minor aspects of candidate interviews, it generates real benefits that extend to employees, the company, and beyond. Salary transparency not only contributes to rectifying societal wrongs, such as gender and ethnic wage gaps, but also helps individuals both understand their present salary and see more clearly the track toward greater pay. For companies, salary transparency is an invaluable tool that enhances hiring, as well as long-term employee satisfaction, retention, and productivity.


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Entrepreneurs Can’t Afford To Ignore HR And Benefits Management

Employee benefits

Written by  Moira Vetter | As appeared in Forbes.

Moira Vetter, Founder & CEO Modo Modo Agency, Forbes Contributor

When our company was a startup, as the founder, I managed benefits, HR, personnel support, finance… the chief cook and bottle washer syndrome. As we grew, I was surprised at how much benefits management requirements expanded.

The demands on our time came from competitive shopping medical benefits, workers comp benefits, short-term and long-term disability and 401k benefits, among others. Before we knew it we had 3 vendors to manage on different payment schedules with different filing requirements. And just because we aspired to be a paperless office, that didn’t stop the ‘documentation requirements’ for distributing safe harbor paperwork and quarterly reports and managing annual renewals.

People want choices you may not be able to offer

As our headcount eclipsed 15 people and we had different profiles of employees that were motivated by different benefits, it got even harder. It’s one thing to manage the transactional realities and costs of benefits, it’s another thing to take the time to understand what your team wants and offer them options.

We participate every year in the Best Places to Work survey, and for the past 5 years we only got dinged in one category—benefits. No matter how many new benefits we added, no matter that we covered more of the premiums, we still couldn’t keep up with the reality (or the perception) of choice that our growing team wanted. People work for more than a mission, culture or salary, they work for their entire package. Benefits is a serious consideration and factor in job selection and satisfaction.

HR & Payroll Management have gotten a little testy of late

I started talking to other entrepreneurs and more than a few had brought in a strategic benefits management companies. You’ve likely heard commercials for unicorn superstar Zenefits, although they’ve been getting some bad press in their battle with ADP. There are some valid points raised about who owns data on employees, how that data is used and who is benefiting from the value of that data.

For most startups that want to stay out of the mud flinging, you are just seeking help, more competitive options, more tech-savvy benefits administration and happier employees as a result.

Here’s what we’ve gotten as a result of engaging an HR management firm

Since our HR management launch (annual renewals completed and the new interface up and running), our HR manager is assured of compliance with all the new documentation requirements, we’ve been able to move to a single source and interface for all health benefits, 401k, PTO/benefits administration, LTD/STD and other benefits like employee purchases.

The benefits themselves, because they are group purchased by the benefits management company, are on par with those of a Fortune 500 company. Instead of 2 or 3 plans, you can offer 10 or 12 that appeal to a broader range of employees.

And, we have benefits that we ordinarily wouldn’t have explored, that may really matter to a few employees. Among these are pet insurance, telecommuter tax credits and discount programs on travel and computer purchases. We even got a better deal (7% less) on Apple purchases… which anyone buying computers knows is practically impossible to find.

Why should this matter for an entrepreneur?

As a founder, you’re heads down on your product offerings and selling your services. Your people are focused on what they’re getting in exchange for their time spent with you. They compare benefits when they consider a job. They remember when they’ve told you their benefits didn’t cover something and you did nothing about it. In the years to come, if we don’t satisfy a broader range of more demanding employees, we won’t have anyone to celebrate our growth with.

Next year we’re going to do that Best Places To Work survey again and you better believe I’m going to be watching the feedback in the benefits column. I will also start promoting our benefits in recruitment messages.

Our people, and the ones we seek to hire, take us to where we’re going and if benefits matter this much to them, they need to matter to us. When was the last time you did an employee survey? Do it. I bet you’ll be surprised.

(Note: The provider we selected was TriNet because of their emphasis on entrepreneurs and rapidly growing startups.)

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What do you think entrepreneurs want to know about managing money or securing capital?

Source: Entrepreneurs Can’t Afford To Ignore HR And Benefits Management – Forbes

What is Financial Wellness?

Written by  John Tabb | Originally published at Questis

Many products proclaim themselves to fall under the Financial Wellness category. This post covers the characteristics of a true Financial Wellness Program.

According to Tom Rath and Jim Harter, leaders of workplace well-being research for Gallup, financial wellness is defined as “effectively managing your economic life.”

This simple concept encompasses many factors, including:

  • Keeping spending within one’s means
  • Being financially prepared for emergencies
  • Having access to the information and tools necessary to make good financial decisions
  • Having a plan for the future

The underlying concept of financial wellness is financial security, one of the most common goals reported by employees across all sectors. However, very few report having access to the kinds of financial services and benefits that they feel would be the most helpful. This sentiment is echoed by employers in a 2014 report from the Center for Financial Services Innovation. Most of their financial health offerings consist of limited employee assistance programs designed for crisis situations, comprising just a small part of an employee’s total health benefits package. In many cases, these programs aren’t included in the benefits package at all. What’s missing is a more comprehensive approach to financial fitness, one that helps employees build lasting financial strength and stability, leading to a more solid organization.

A Holistic Approach

Employer-based financial wellness is often seen as an addendum to other benefits, but the financial health of employees should be viewed through the comprehensive lens of other health and wellness programs that employers offer. These services don’t just take care of employees when they’re sick, but also work to prevent them from getting sick in the first place with fitness, smoking cessation, diet and lifestyle programs. Financial wellness programs should work in the same way, offering holistic support and advice to employees so they can meet short-term needs while working toward long-range goals.

Each employee has different financial priorities and obligations, so a successful, holistic wellness program requires solutions tailored to an employee’s unique circumstances. This starts with digital engagement, interviews and examination of employees’ pay and benefits records to establish a complete picture of their finances. The aim is to understand employees’ goals when it comes to paying taxes, purchasing a home, establishing and maintaining good credit, healthcare, emergency preparedness, education costs, paying down debt, saving for retirement and other parts of their financial life.

The second part of a holistic approach to financial wellness is understanding the concepts of good financial health and having the right tools to act on that knowledge. This means employees not only need education, but also the opportunity to put this information into action. For some employees, this simply means using software to keep track of financial goals. For others, having a financial coach or adviser to review their finances and offer suggestions does more to keep them accountable and engaged with their goals.

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Benefits of Employer-Based Financial Wellness

The value of a good wellness solution is felt across the organization, from employees to management and other decision makers.

For Employees

A high level of financial wellness gives employees the ability to make better, more informed decisions and manage a successful, long- term strategy. When employees have acomprehensive understanding of their finances, they can create effective strategies for dividing, and potentially automating, their paychecks between bill, savings, investments and other commitments. Employees will be equipped with the skills, knowledge, and tools necessary to develop and support successful financial outcomes.

In fact, studies show that people who regularly plan ahead for emergencies and other irregular expenses are 10 times more likely to be considered financially healthy than those who don’t, regardless of income or other demographics. Experts point to this as evidence that positive financial habits have more impact on a household’s financial well-being than an increase in income. A report by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau found that a lack of disposable income is one of the most commonly cited reasons that employees give for not participating in retirement plans and other employer-provided financial benefits. However, if employees can make more effective use of their current funds, they may find the income to put toward their future.

For Employers

Employers feel the effects of their staff’s financial health as well. Employees in stressful financial circumstances are less productive and less likely to remain at their jobs. Pat Milligan, Senior Partner at Mercer, found that 22 percent of employees report missing at least one day of work to handle financial problems, 15 percent reported spending at least 20 hours a month working on personal financial tasks at work, and a full 20 percent have had to resign from jobs due to financial stress. And according to the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, one day of employee absence costs businesses an average of $348 in lost productivity. From that angle, ensuring that workers are free from personal financial stressors can boost a company’s profitability.

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Unfortunately, many companies, including those polled for the report conducted by the Center for Financial Services Innovation, don’t realize their need for a broader approach to their employees’ financial fitness until workers become reliant on emergency EAP services, increasing the costs of these programs and jeopardizing the company’s ability to keep them going. Financial wellness can help companies fight against unnecessary expenditures due to absenteeism, lost productivity and benefit cost overruns, allowing businesses to expand their benefit options to include:

  • Programs that enhance money management skills and help employees create and build assets
  • Newsletters and other periodic publications
  • Investment, retirement, college, emergency and health care planning seminars
  • Debt- and credit-related programs

A more extensive list of benefits can also help businesses attract and retain top-notch staff, as employees who are financially content are more likely to stay with the company for the long haul.

The road to financial health is an ongoing journey. Once financial wellness has been achieved, both employees and employers have a role to play in its continued progress. Establishing and cultivating financial fitness requires individual persistence, as well as a supportive environment with accessible, high-quality financial services. This will not only allow companies to realize benefits such as increased loyalty, higher productivity, and lower costs, but enable employees to meet the challenge of balancing responsible living today with wise planning for tomorrow.

Article sources:
[1] Jennifer Robison, The Business Case for Wellbeing, Gallup Business Journal
http://businessjournal.gallup.com/content/139373/Business-Case-Wellbeing.aspx
[2] The Effects of Financial Education in the Workplace: Evidence from a Survey of Employers
https://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~scholz/Research/Financial_Education.pdf
[3] Financial Wellness at Work, Consumer Financial Protection Bureau
http://files.consumerfinance.gov/f/201408_cfpb_report_financial-wellness-at-work.pdf
[4] Pat Milligan, Driving Financial Well-being: A New Multidimensional Approach for Organizations, Mercer
[5] Aliza Gutman, Understanding and Improving Consumer Financial Health in America, Center for Financial Services Innovation

Source: Questis – What is Financial Wellness